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This module provides functions for determining whether a given language code is LTR or RTL.

  • It uses the RTL or LTR status of languages defined in the data returned by Module:Dir/RTL overrides.
  • Otherwise, if a language code is not mapped, it uses the language direction provided by the MediaWiki language library (but this only works for a limited number of distinct languages in the same viewed page, as the MediaWiki library sets a quota on the number of languages for which it can load localized data). For this reason, if a page uses lots of languages (for example with Template:Multilingual description) the data should be as somplete as possible to avoid reaching this quota.

This module includes a quick test function whose status is displayed at top of its description page: this status is OK if there are no errors in the data, i.e. only valid or known language codes are mapped.


From wikitext

From wikitext this module must be used through a template, Template:Dir. Please see the template page for documentation.

From Lua

From Lua you can use the module's isRTL function. First, load the module:

<source lang="lua"> local dir = require('Module:Dir') </source>

Then you can use the function like this:

<source lang="lua"> dir.isRTL(lang) -- returns false or true </source>

The lang variable is the language code string. The function returns true if the language for the code is detected as RTL, and it returns false if it is LTR or if the code is absent or invalid.

<source lang="lua">, rtl, ltr) -- returns either the rtl or ltr parameter values </source>

Same thing except that you can define the value to return for each case.

In the Lua console, you can run the included quick test to scan the data defined in Module:Dir/RTL overrides: it provides a detailed report of invalid language codes, missing languages known by MediaWiki, and helps maintaining this data.

-- This module implements [[Template:Dir]].

-- local rtlOverrides = mw.loadData('Module:Dir/RTL overrides') -- !!! mw.loadData() is currently broken, it does NOT load anything
local rtlOverrides = require('Module:Dir/RTL overrides')
local p = {}

local function trim(s)
    if s and s ~= '' then s = tostring(s):match('^%s*(.-)%s*$') end
    if s == '' then return nil end
    return s

function p.rtlLangs(isRTL)
    if isRTL == nil then isRTL = true end
    return rtlOverrides[isRTL] or {}

function p.isRTL(code)
    if type(code) ~= 'string' then return nil end
    local v = rtlOverrides[code] -- very fast and not limited in the number of supported languages
    if v ~= nil then return v end -- return it if mapped, otherwise use MediaWiki library:
    local success, ret = pcall(function ()
        return -- expensive and limited to 20 languages per MediaWiki instance
    return success and ret

function, rtl, ltr)
    if p.isRTL(code) then
        return rtl
        return ltr

-- Used via a template {{Dir|language-code|wikitext if rtl|wikitext if ltr}}
-- which just calls {{#invoke:Dir|main}}, the 3 parameters are automatically trimmed
function p.main(frame)
    local args = frame:getParent().args -- Parameters used to transclude Template:Dir
    local code = trim(args[1])
    local rtl = trim(args[2]) or 'rtl'
    local ltr = trim(args[3]) or 'ltr'
    return, rtl, ltr)

setmetatable(p, { quickTests = function ()
    local rtlLangs = p.rtlLangs(true)
    local ltrLangs = p.rtlLangs(false)
    -- utility: reverse order iterator on sequences
    local function revipairs(t)
        return function(t, i)
            i = i - 1
            local v = t[i]
            if v == nil then return nil end
            return i, v
        end, t, #t + 1

    -- Basic check of data format
    local function checkLangs(name, langs)
        for k, lang in pairs(langs) do
            assert(type(k) == 'number' and k == math.floor(k)
                and type(lang) == 'string' and #lang >= 2 and #lang <= 16
                and lang:find('^[a-z][%-0-9a-z]*[0-9a-z]$') == 1,
                ": Invalid sequence of language codes, " .. name .. "['" .. k .. "'] = '" .. lang .. "'")
        return true
    local ok, msg
    ok, msg = pcall(checkLangs, 'rtlLangs', rtlLangs)
    if not ok then return false, msg end
    ok, msg = pcall(checkLangs, 'ltrLangs', ltrLangs)
    if not ok then return false, msg end

    -- Build inverse maps of languages having each direction
    local isrtl, isltr = {}, {}
    for _, lang in ipairs(rtlLangs) do isrtl[lang] = true end
    for _, lang in ipairs(ltrLangs) do isltr[lang] = true end
    -- Check conflicts using the two inverse maps
    for _, lang in ipairs(rtlLangs) do
        if isltr[lang] then return false, ": Direction conflict for '" .. lang .. "'" end
    for _, lang in ipairs(ltrLangs) do
        if isrtl[lang] then return false, ": Direction conflict for '" .. lang .. "'" end

    -- Log missing languages (allows filling the tables above) according to MediaWiki internal data
    local knownLangs = mw.language.fetchLanguageNames()
    for lang, _ in pairs(knownLangs) do
         if rtlOverrides[lang] == nil then -- only if we still don't have data for this language
             -- Note: we cannot check more than 20 languages at once, then MediaWiki raises an error.
             -- So this test only runs on the Lua console, where you can update the tables at top.
             ok, value = pcall(function() return tostring( end)
             mw.log("Missing direction for language '" .. lang .. "', MediaWiki returns '" .. value .. "'")

    -- Sort and deduplicate language code values (by scanning backward) for data cleanup
    for i, lang in revipairs(rtlLangs) do
        if rtlLangs[i - 1] == rtlLangs[i] then table.remove(rtlLangs, i) end
    for i, lang in revipairs(ltrLangs) do
        if ltrLangs[i - 1] == ltrLangs[i] then table.remove(ltrLangs, i) end
    -- Final presentation of current lists, sorted and deduplicated
    mw.log("local rtlLangs = { '" .. table.concat(rtlLangs, "', '") .. "' }")
    mw.log("local ltrLangs = { '" .. table.concat(ltrLangs, "', '") .. "' }")
    return true
end })
--[==[ Enter this to run tests in the Lua console:

return p